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Lifespan

Preventive Medicine Recommendations (Timeline)

Preventive Medicine Recommendations (Timeline)

This is the period in life when people establish families and have children, build careers and work. This is a period of sexual activity, sometimes with more than one partner.

About 30% of this age group smokes (45% of men). Most people in this age group do not yet suffer from chronic illnesses such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and heart disease and there is a low incidence of cancer (except for melanoma and leukemia).

There is a higher incidence of injuries due to road accidents, work accidents and depression (about 20%). Also, at least 10% of all women are exposed to their partners vulnerabilities and violence. Therefore, this is the period when the population should take preventive measures mainly to prevent and delay the possibility of preventable accidents and illnesses by adhering to cautious driving, accident prevention, quitting and avoiding smoking, regular exercise, proper nutrition, obesity prevention, prevention of sun exposure and a greater awareness for moods and depressions.

For women, this means maintaining a balanced diet, avoiding smoking during pregnancy and keeping track of pregnancy.

Preventive medicine for 20-39 years

Vaccines and preventative drugsCounselling and preventionCounselling and prevention
Diphtheria-tetanus Injection
Every 10 years, the first of which is diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis.

Get an Influenza vaccine once a year.

Completion of rubella vaccine by strapping MMR for women 18-45 years old who are not vaccinated.
Measure height and Weight once.

Do a Blood pressure test

A. To the general population aged 20-29 do a test one once every 5 years.
From 30-39 once every 3 years.

B. Those with risk factors for heart disease – once a year
Good eating and nutrition habits, prenatal follow-up, birth control and family planning. Smoking and smoking cessation, Reduce alcohol and drug usage.
Get an Polysaccharide vaccine against pneumococcus and meningococci for the at-risk groups.Test Total HDL cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides once every 5 years for men over the age of 35.Proper sleeping habits (at least 6-8 hours a day).
Get inoculated for Hepatitis B for at-risk groups, Hepatitis A for travellers and travellers in endemic areas for Hepatitis AUndertake a Lipid profile once a year.
Haemoglobin test – after every pregnancy.
Cervical Surface (Pap Smear) – once every 3 years from age 25 with an emphasis on women at risk.
Careful driving, road accident prevention and seat belt use.
Giving folic acid (400-800 micrograms) before becoming pregnant and for the first 3 months of pregnancy.Detection of depression.
Detecting domestic violence.
Aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes on most days of the week, for at least 150 minutes weekly on moderate to high intensity.
Strength training 2-3 times a week and flexibility training.

During this period, the prevalence of chronic illnesses such as birth defects, diabetes, heart disease and malignancies is rising. However, the most effective means of reducing and preventing ill-health and mortality from all diseases is maintaining a healthy lifestyle that includes avoiding and quitting smoking, proper nutrition, obesity prevention and regular exercise.

At the age group of 40-50, the incidence of myocardial infarction is 4-5 times higher in men compared to women. For men at the age group of 50-64 the prevalence is 3-4 times higher in men compared to women.

This is the menopause period for women as menstruation is diminished . It is sensible to treat the loss of menstruation as a natural change in the female life cycle.

This age bracket should be encouraged to identify risk factors and receive recommendations for primary prevention and early detection of disease.

Preventive medicine from the age of 40-64 years

Vaccines and preventative drugsCounselling and preventionCounselling and prevention
Diphtheria-tetanus Get vaccinated every 10 years. First dose vaccine against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis.
Measure Weight, height and BMI at least every 5 years.
Good eating and nutrition habits, proper sleeping habits (6-8 hours a day)
Get a Flu vaccine once a year. Polysaccharide vaccine against pneumococcal and anti-enterococci for the at-risk groups.
Herpes zoster vaccine for those aged 60 and over
Test Blood pressure once every two years if blood pressure is up to 120/80. Once a year if the blood pressure is above 120/80.Smoking and smoking cessation, alcohol damage.
Get a hepatitis A vaccine for travellers Bone density examination (DEXA) from age 60 for women at risk of osteoporosisAvoiding excessive sun exposure.
Provide 75 mg of aspirin for men over 50 and women over 60, at high risk for cardiovascular disease, based on individual discussion and risk (bleeding) risk and efficacy.Test Blood cholesterol every 5 years (fatty profile including LDL for men and women).
ECG once a year
Menopause problems and discussion of hormone therapy (pros and cons) and prevention of osteoporosis and fractures.
Once a year mammogram for women over 50 (over 40 for high-risk women)
Cervical surface once every 3 years.
Careful driving, seat belts and accident prevention.
Test faecal occult blood once a year from age 50 to men and women.
Do a 5-year colonoscopy if subject is at risk
Detecting depression in the community.
Detecting domestic and spouse violence.
Aerobic activity for most days of the week, of at least 30 minutes (for at least 150 minutes a week). Add strength training 2-3 times a week and workout flexibility and balance.

From the age of 65 and over

At this age, there is a high incidence of chronic illnesses and an increased risk of acute illness. An increased use of drugs and health services follows accordingly. Diseases can also lead to functional, temporary or permanent disability – especially in older ages.

At the same time, personal, social, and economic difficulties – due to treating a sick spouse, being widowed, leaving the employment cycle, social isolation, financial hardship, and so forth – may have health implications. An increasing number widows, living alone and the implication of this, stands out in women aged 75 and over in view of the higher life expectancy.

However, as a general rule, we did not consider it appropriate to separate recommendations between 74-65 and 75+ year-olds, except for cases where evidence-based recommendations distinguishing these two age strata (such as for breast and colon cancer screening tests) were given.

As with all age groups, even the most significant means of preventing and reducing ill health, mortality, and daily functioning are the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, in particular: exercising, proper nutrition, obesity prevention and smoking avoidance.

The recommendations are EBM-supported, unless indicated by expert opinion. The frequency of operations and tests is annual unless otherwise stated.

Tests and early detectionVaccines and preventative drugsHealthy Lifestyle advice
Cardiovascular disease and respiratory system vaccines
Blood pressure measurement every year to two years (according to values)
Flu vaccine in the autumn and winter months
150 minutes of aerobic exercise per week (most days of the week). The degree of effort will be adjusted to the health status
BMI Measurement
A one-time test of total cholesterol and HDL for those who have not yet been tested
One-time vaccine against pneumococcusNutrition focused on Low Saturated Fat and Trans Fat
Once-off Ultrasonic Review of The abdominal region For Men Who Are 65-74 Smoking Or non-SmokingNutrition Containing Up To 1500 Mg Sodium Per Day
Cancer
Test faecal occult blood in stools
Mammography (every two years)
Nutrition containing fruits, vegetables and bran (21 g / day in women and 30 g / day in men), whole grains and low-fat dairy products
Falls and fractures
Awareness about falls in the last year and suspected of violence and abuseVitamin D3 800-1000 (international units / day) according to diet and exposure to the sunThe exposure is advised to be used in the morning
Maintenance of weight by constant exercise. Like walkingCalcium (1200 mg / day) according to dietRegular exercise with strength building exercises (strengthening muscles) at least twice a week and improving balance at least three times a week
Bone density test (DEXA) from age 65 for women at normal risk
Visual acuity test (Snellen board)
Hearing Test
Multi systemic
Detecting depression with 2 questionsKarmic vaccine (Td)Questioning and counselling regarding the adequacy of drug treatment every year and upon return from the hospital
Oral and dental cavity examinationOne-time Herpes Zoster vaccine from age 60 Questioning and advice on sleeping habits
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